Treatment of gum (gingival) diseases i.e. periodontal treatment
Why do gum diseases occur and what are their signs and symptoms?
Gum diseases can come as a surprise to many patients due to the fact that they are generally inflammatory diseases of chronic origin – thus, they do not cause pain or discomfort. Rarely, if the disease is of acute origin, it can produce pain nad discomfort.
The most common gum disease is gingivitis (the inflammation of the gums) that can quickly progress into the gingival pockets and grow into the inflammation of the entire attachment complex of the tooth (the jaw bone, periodontal ligaments, radicular cementum, the gingivae) called periodontitis. The primary difference between gingivitis and periodontitis is that periodontitis (as a more severe disease) is commonly accompanied by increased mobility of the teeth.
Gingivitis and periodontitis are most commonly caused by the disruption of the balance between bacterial activity and the organisms defense response. This means that any excess of bacteria near the gingivae and the gingival pockets (such as plaque or dental calculus) is a potential risk factor for developing gingivitis or periodontitis.
There are also conditions that do not require excess bacteria or bacterial activity to induce gingivitis or periodontitis. They act primarily by altering or overstimulating the organisms defense response (pregnancy, puberty, HIV positive or patients with AIDS, use of systemic drugs, diabetes, leukemia, deficite of vitamine C, systemic connective tissue disorders, etc.)
Gum diseases are often accompanied by:
- Bleeding gums – gums start to bleed even after a slight touch or while brushing teeth
- Discoloration of gums – a healthy gum is coral-pink, inflamed gums are usually bluish-red or bright red
- Change in the position of the gums – the gums can frequently move „upward“ towards the root tips of the teeth, leaving the roots exposed
Treatment of gum diseases
When confronted with gingivitis or periodontitis, it is paramount to be aware of the cause of the disease. In most cases the mechanical removal of all bacterial excess (dental plaque, dental calculus) is enough to treat the periodontal disease. We use such methods as air-flow treatment, ultrasonic removal of plaque and calculus and also removal of plaque and calculus by hand. In more complicated cases we always plan out our treatment procedures according to the specific clinical situation.
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